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Yellowstone National Par
(September 2017)

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This picture of two grazing bison was taken at the Midway Geyser Basin.  Located midway between the Upper Geyser and Lower Geyser Basins, Midway Geyser Basin Yellowstone stretches along a mile of the famous Firehole River and contains some of the most spectacular thermal features in Yellowstone Park.

Picture Number: CM1_0034

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 250     Shutter Speed: 1/500 sec

F-Stop: f/5.6     Lens: 140 mm

Mammoth Hot Springs is different from other thermal areas in the area. This is largely because limestone is a relatively soft type of rock, allowing the travertine formations to grow much faster than other sinter formations. It has been described as looking like a cave turned inside out. Each year, the rain and melted snow seeps into the earth. Cold to begin with, the water is quickly warmed by heat radiating from a partially molten magma chamber deep underground, the remnant of a cataclysmic volcanic explosion that occurred 600,000 years ago. After moving throughout this underwater “plumbing” system, the now hot water rises through a system of small fissures. Here it also interacts with hot gases charged with carbon dioxide rising from the magma chamber. As some of the carbon dioxide is dissolved in the hot water, a weak, carbonic acid solution is formed. In the Mammoth area, the hot, acidic solution dissolves large quantities of limestone on its way up through the rock layers to the hot springs on the surface. Above ground and exposed to the air, some of the carbon dioxide escapes from the solution. Without it, the dissolved limestone can’t remain in the solution, so it reforms into a solid mineral. This white, chalky mineral is deposited as the travertine that forms the terraces.

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Picture Number: CM1_0021

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 200     Shutter Speed: 1/80 sec

F-Stop: f/10     Lens: 140 mm

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This picture – of a lone bison – was taken in Lamar Valley.  Located in the northeastern corner of the park, the Lamar Valley, along the Lamar River, in is often called America’s Serengeti for its large and easy-to-see populations of large animals.  Among its most famous inhabitants are the Junction Butte and Lamar Canyon Wolf packs; wolf enthusiasts gather with spotting scopes most days hoping to see these impressive canines in action. In addition to wolves, other animals roaming the Lamar include large herds of bison, pronghorn, badgers, grizzly bears, bald eagles, osprey, deer, and coyotes. 

Picture Number: CM1_0100

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 400     Shutter Speed: 1/400 sec

F-Stop: f/5.6     Lens: 140 mm

This picture of a fly fisherman was taken at a parking area along the Firehole River.  The Firehole River is a famous and storied destination for serious fly fishermen. When it was discovered in the 1830s by American explorers, the Firehole was barren of trout above what is now called Firehole Falls.  Brook trout were first introduced to the upper Firehole in 1889, while brown trout, the river's most plentiful trout today, was first stocked in 1890. Rainbow trout were not introduced until 1923. Mountain whitefish are native to the Firehole below Firehole Falls. By the late 19th century, the Firehole, and Yellowstone National Park in general, was a popular destination for fishermen. In 1955 all stocking programs in the park were discontinued and today's Firehole trout are completely wild populations. In 1968, based on increasing pressure on the Firehole, the Gibbon and Madison rivers, the National Park Service designated these waters as Fly Fishing Only.

Picture Number: CM1_0089

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 280     Shutter Speed: 1/250 sec

F-Stop: f/5.6     Lens: 90 mm

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Yellowstone's Firehole Lake Drive is a 3-mile, one-way side road off the Grand Loop located between the Old Faithful exit and Madison Junction. It has many geysers and hot springs that you can see from the road including this one - Firehole Spring.

Picture Number: CM1_0170

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 200     Shutter Speed: 1/200 sec

F-Stop: f/7.1     Lens: 10 mm

This is a picture of Old Faithful geyser taken from the 2nd floor deck of the Old Faithful Lodge.  Old Faithful is a cone geyser located in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States. It was named in 1870 during the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition and was the first geyser in the park to receive a name. It is a highly predictable geothermal feature, and has erupted every 44 minutes to two hours since 2000. Eruptions can shoot 3,700 to 8,400 gallons of boiling water to a height of 106 to 185 feet lasting from ​11⁄2 to 5 minutes. The average height of an eruption is 145 feet.  Intervals between eruptions can range from 60 to 110 minutes, averaging 66.5 minutes in 1939, slowly increasing to an average of 90 minutes apart today, which may be the result of earthquakes affecting subterranean water levels. The disruptions have made earlier mathematical relationships inaccurate, but have actually made Old Faithful more predictable in terms of its next eruption. Between 1983 and 1994, four probes containing temperature and pressure measurement devices and video equipment were lowered into Old Faithful. The probes were lowered as deep as 72 feet. Temperature measurements of the water at this depth were 244 °F, the same as was measured in 1942.

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Picture Number: CM1_0149

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 100     Shutter Speed: 1/250 sec

F-Stop: f/8     Lens: 95 mm

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This picture of the female bison and her youngster was taken in Hayden Valley.  This broad valley just north of the lake area and Mud Volcano thermal area is bison central. Visitors often see herds of them grazing and lounging along the wide Yellowstone River that runs through it. It’s also a good place to look for coyotes, waterfowl, grizzly bears, and wolves.

Picture Number: CM1_0029

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 800     Shutter Speed: 1/800 sec

F-Stop: f/6.3     Lens: 220 mm

Lower Falls is the most famous in the Park.  In fact, it is most likely the second most photographed spot in Yellowstone, with Old Faithful Geyser being the first.  At 308 feet, the Lower Falls is the tallest waterfall in the park. In terms of height alone, it’s more than twice the size of Niagara Falls. The amount of water flowing over the falls varies greatly depending on the season. At peak runoff times in the spring, 63,500 gal/sec flow over the falls, whereas at lower runoff times in the fall, the flow diminishes to 5,000 gal/sec. There are numerous views of the Falls from both the east (Inspiration Point, Grandview Point and Lookout Point) and west (Artists Point) sides of the Grand Canyon, most of which require only a short walk or virtually no walk to see. (This picture was taken at Artist’s Point)  The canyon’s colors were created by hot water acting on volcanic rock. It was not these colors, but the river’s yellow banks at its distant confluence with the Missouri River, that occasioned the Minnetaree Indian name which French trappers translated as roche jaune, yellow stone. The canyon has been rapidly downcut more than once, perhaps by great glacial outburst floods. Little deepening takes place today.

Picture Number: CM1_0315

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 200     Shutter Speed: 1/160 sec

F-Stop: f/6.3     Lens: 27 mm

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Mammoth Hot Springs are different from other thermal areas in the area. This is largely because limestone is a relatively soft type of rock, allowing the travertine formations to grow much faster than other sinter formations. It has been described as looking like a cave turned inside out. Each year, the rain and melted snow seeps into the earth. Cold to begin with, the water is quickly warmed by heat radiating from a partially molten magma chamber deep underground, the remnant of a cataclysmic volcanic explosion that occurred 600,000 years ago. After moving throughout this underwater “plumbing” system, the now hot water rises through a system of small fissures. Here it also interacts with hot gases charged with carbon dioxide rising from the magma chamber. As some of the carbon dioxide is dissolved in the hot water, a weak, carbonic acid solution is formed. In the Mammoth area, the hot, acidic solution dissolves large quantities of limestone on its way up through the rock layers to the hot springs on the surface. Above ground and exposed to the air, some of the carbon dioxide escapes from the solution. Without it, the dissolved limestone can’t remain in the solution, so it reforms into a solid mineral. This white, chalky mineral is deposited as the travertine that forms the terraces.

Picture Number: CM1_0035

Date:    September 2017

Camera:    Nikon D7100

ISO:   200              Shutter Speed:  1/125 sec

F-Stop:  f/11          Lens:    140 mm

This is a picture of Old Faithful geyser taken from the 2nd floor deck of the Old Faithful Lodge.  Old Faithful is a cone geyser located in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States. It was named in 1870 during the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition and was the first geyser in the park to receive a name. It is a highly predictable geothermal feature, and has erupted every 44 minutes to two hours since 2000. Eruptions can shoot 3,700 to 8,400 gallons of boiling water to a height of 106 to 185 feet lasting from ​11⁄2 to 5 minutes. The average height of an eruption is 145 feet.  Intervals between eruptions can range from 60 to 110 minutes, averaging 66.5 minutes in 1939, slowly increasing to an average of 90 minutes apart today, which may be the result of earthquakes affecting subterranean water levels. The disruptions have made earlier mathematical relationships inaccurate, but have actually made Old Faithful more predictable in terms of its next eruption. Between 1983 and 1994, four probes containing temperature and pressure measurement devices and video equipment were lowered into Old Faithful. The probes were lowered as deep as 72 feet. Temperature measurements of the water at this depth were 244 °F, the same as was measured in 1942.

Picture Number: CM1_0151

Date:    September 2017

Camera:    Nikon D7100

ISO:   140              Shutter Speed:  1/250 sec

F-Stop:  f/8            Lens:    95 mm

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This is a picture of Old Faithful geyser taken from the 2nd floor deck of the Old Faithful Lodge.  Old Faithful is a cone geyser located in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States. It was named in 1870 during the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition and was the first geyser in the park to receive a name. It is a highly predictable geothermal feature, and has erupted every 44 minutes to two hours since 2000. Eruptions can shoot 3,700 to 8,400 gallons of boiling water to a height of 106 to 185 feet lasting from ​11⁄2 to 5 minutes. The average height of an eruption is 145 feet.  Intervals between eruptions can range from 60 to 110 minutes, averaging 66.5 minutes in 1939, slowly increasing to an average of 90 minutes apart today, which may be the result of earthquakes affecting subterranean water levels. The disruptions have made earlier mathematical relationships inaccurate, but have actually made Old Faithful more predictable in terms of its next eruption. Between 1983 and 1994, four probes containing temperature and pressure measurement devices and video equipment were lowered into Old Faithful. The probes were lowered as deep as 72 feet. Temperature measurements of the water at this depth were 244 °F, the same as was measured in 1942.

Picture Number: CM1_0148

Date:    September 2017

Camera:    Nikon D7100

ISO:   100              Shutter Speed:  1/250 sec

F-Stop:  f/8          Lens:    95 mm

This is a picture of Old Faithful geyser taken from the 2nd floor deck of the Old Faithful Lodge.  Old Faithful is a cone geyser located in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States. It was named in 1870 during the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition and was the first geyser in the park to receive a name. It is a highly predictable geothermal feature, and has erupted every 44 minutes to two hours since 2000. Eruptions can shoot 3,700 to 8,400 gallons of boiling water to a height of 106 to 185 feet lasting from ​11⁄2 to 5 minutes. The average height of an eruption is 145 feet.  Intervals between eruptions can range from 60 to 110 minutes, averaging 66.5 minutes in 1939, slowly increasing to an average of 90 minutes apart today, which may be the result of earthquakes affecting subterranean water levels. The disruptions have made earlier mathematical relationships inaccurate, but have actually made Old Faithful more predictable in terms of its next eruption. Between 1983 and 1994, four probes containing temperature and pressure measurement devices and video equipment were lowered into Old Faithful. The probes were lowered as deep as 72 feet. Temperature measurements of the water at this depth were 244 °F, the same as was measured in 1942.

Picture Number: CM1_0161

Date:    September 2017

Camera:    Nikon D7100

ISO:   180              Shutter Speed:  1/250 sec

F-Stop:  f/8            Lens:    32 mm

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While driving Yellowstone’s Upper Loop road we stopped at Mammoth Hot Springs.  Mammoth Hot Springs had been the park’s headquarters during the time the park was managed by the US Army.  As we explored the area, we saw this bull elk resting between what had been, during the army’s presence, the Bachelor Offices Quarters (BOQ) and the Captain’s Quarters.  Judging from the size of his antlers he must have been several years old and he was completely at home.  The excitement he caused by his presence in this highly active area was completely ignored by him.

Picture Number: CM1_0063

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 200     Shutter Speed: 1/80 sec

F-Stop: f/10     Lens: 140 mm

Gibbon Falls is a waterfall on the Gibbon River in northwestern Yellowstone National Park. Gibbon Falls has a drop of approximately 84 feet. The falls are located roadside, 4.7 miles upstream from the confluence of the Gibbon and Firehole Rivers at Madison Junction on the Grand Loop Road.  This segmented cascade flows near the Yellowstone Caldera rim which was formed 600,000 years ago. The falls are easily accessible along one of Yellowstone's major thoroughfares, making this an often-crowded spot.  The falls is a large one which is split in two by a band of rock in the middle. The flow of water on the right is the stronger of the two. As the Gibbon River courses down the right side, it strikes a ledge, shooting the water into the air with a rooster tail effect. The water to the left spreads out into a wide cascade which is shallower.  When the Washburn and Hayden parties traveled through the Firehole River and Gibbon River basins in the 1870s, the Gibbon River above Gibbon Falls was barren of fish, the falls being a natural barrier to upstream migration. Unlike the Yellowstone drainage, the upper Gibbon was isolated from any connection to drainages on the Pacific slope. The absence of fish was overcome in 1890 when the first Rainbow trout were introduced into the river above the falls. In 1920, Arctic Grayling, native in the Gibbon and Madison Rivers below the falls were stocked in Grebe Lake at the headwaters of the Gibbon. Today, the falls still block upstream migrations of spawning trout from the Madison River, but the upper Gibbon has become a consistent trout fishery because of these introductions.

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Picture Number: CM1_0038

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 220     Shutter Speed: 1/125 sec

F-Stop: f/5.6     Lens: 18 mm

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This picture was taken at Terrance Springs.  Terrace Springs is a thermal region adjacent to the southwest corner of Gibbon Geyser Basin.  Terrace Springs is located next to the highway north of Madison. The spouting activity is not caused by high temperatures, since the springs exhibit only about 140 °F, but by a mixture of evaporating gases, mainly carbon dioxide.

Picture Number: CM1_0026

Date: September 2017

Camera: Nikon D7100

ISO: 200     Shutter Speed: 1/200 sec

F-Stop: f/7.1     Lens: 18 mm

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